A main question that appears in a magnet profession research study is just how to make a decision between Neodymium magnets or Ferrite magnets for a specific application. A profession study that seems extremely simple at first glimpse can rapidly end up being more intricate when all the aspects are considered.
Designers that wish to optimize their product for certain variables may create similar products that use either type of magnet depending on a certain goal, which might include numerous factors such as cost, efficiency, system weight, system dimension, performance, type factor, appearances, preparation and also various other factors to consider.
If effectiveness, particularly efficiency-per-unit volume is the choosing variable, developers usually choose neodymium magnets, which deliver up to 20 times the magnetic field each quantity contrasted to ferrite magnets.
If cost is the most important aspect, designers usually pick Ferrite magnets, which deliver 2-3 times the electromagnetic field per buck spent, compared to neodymium magnets.
Extra aspects play an important part as product designers think about other variables as we will see listed below.
NdFeB or Ferrite? It’s not always a simple option
If the Neodymium-vs-Ferrite inquiry could be addressed so easily, there would not be excessive to speak about. Yet some unusual lesser-known other factors can influence the decision, so a thorough analysis is typically rewarding.
Here is a short list of several of the lesser-known variables we will certainly cover later on
- System dimension
- Size-related Magnet handling expense
Let’s check out these and other factors as we dig much deeper into the globe of Ferrite and Neodymium magnets.
Ferrite vs Neodymium magnet
There appears to have actually been a fairly a dispute in the audio industry regarding the usage of ferrite magnets vs Neodymium magnets in audio speakers. Superb audio systems have been and also remain to be made with both magnet types.
Advertising products from speaker makers are excellent at clarifying why Neodymium magnets generate such great audio, yet several audiophiles enthusiastically discuss– and also continue to love- the sound result of speaker systems made with ferrite magnets.
So which magnet is the better choice for audio speaker? The reason people have actually discussed is that the decision depends on a number of variables. Is the speaker designed to use in a house? Will it be set up in an auto? Is the voice coil maximized for the magnet? Exactly how well are the other components matched? Are size and weight crucial aspects?
Does the speaker usage compression drivers? Compression drivers require a great deal of power to drive the noise with an orifice -which could prefer Neodymium magnets. However why not create a ferrite compression vehicle driver? It can be as well as has actually been finished with both magnets.
After that what concerning tiny speakers like the ones in cellphones and also headphones? These audio speakers have actually grown to be a large part of the electroacoustic market. What products do they use? As well as why?
Do Automotive Speaker Makers prefer NdFeB Or Ferrite?
Automotive audio speakers are normally developed to fit in tight vehicle spaces. These rooms are commonly not optimal for the same design that would certainly be positioned in a residence setting.
The developer may have to make a 100 mm (4″) woofer work in an auto, however, a residence system might have a 200-300 mm (8-12″) woofer. Show systems are bigger.
Then the depth of the audio speaker may also factor into the formula. A smaller Neodymium magnet can aid a designer make the audio speaker fit into a tighter envelope than a ferrite speaker would certainly allow.
Aspects that favor Neodymium
Here are the conventional factors that impact a choice on which magnet to select for a task:
- Magnetic field strength
- Coercivity (resistance to demagnetization)
Magnetic Field Strength
If a design is dependent on high magnetic field strength, it is ideal maximized by utilizing a magnet with the toughest electromagnetic field.
A solid magnetic field will certainly bring about smaller measurements in other parts of the style. As an example, a more powerful magnetic field causes smaller electric motors, because now the motor can produce more torque in a smaller sized diameter than can be accomplished by a magnet with a weaker magnetic field.
Coercive Force (Hc)
Will the magnet come across a strong demagnetizing field? Neodymium magnets have the strongest Coercivity at area temperature and even at slightly elevated temperature levels. This suggests they put in a very solid resistance to demagnetization in the existence of an opposing electromagnetic field at temperature levels of as much as 230 levels C.
Miniaturization and Size-Related Handling Costs
A smaller electric motor allows for various other part dimensions to be reduced. Smaller sized elements are typically less expensive than larger parts, yet this relies on the particular style. An in-depth cost/benefit analysis will certainly bring clearness to this decision, yet it may require the analysis of a great deal of various factors.
A product designer may assess several variables. These variables may indicate a peak torque or a sustained power level.
Efficiency as well as lifecycle costs prefer Neodymium magnets– especially for an application with a high duty cycle. Their solid magnetic field reaches throughout the air void as well as engages with various other magnetic components at a better distance. This develops a more powerful electric current with much less input from various other areas.
Neodymium Magnets Are Easier to Device than Ferrite Magnets
Among the finer points of magnet style is an understanding of the price of making small, accuracy components. As the component gets smaller sized, the expense is controlled not by the material, however by the machining needed to make the part.
NdFeB is a relatively fragile metal when compared to many other steels, however ferrite is much more brittle as well as somewhat more difficult to machine. So there is a size/complexity factor where a ferrite component actually comes to be extra pricey to make than an equal Neodymium part because of the mechanical handling.
It is very important to keep in mind that though the cost-per-kg boosts as parts obtain smaller sized, the unit price usually maintains dropping. The point is that as the parts obtain smaller, the total price gets dominated by the surface. This is since as the components obtain smaller sized the proportion of surface-area-per-unit-volume rises.
Is this why many tiny NdFeB magnets are discovered in smart phones?
Factors That Support Ferrite
Heat resistance of ferrite & Neodymium magnets
Ferrite magnets have a higher curie temperature than Neodymium magnets, so they preserve their magnetization better at higher temperature levels. This provides designers better operating margins at greater temperatures than Neodymium magnets offer.
Despite the fact that there are Neodymium magnets with high Coercivity for resistance to temperatures in excess of 200 degrees C, these temperature level grades set you back more than reduced temperature level grades. Ferrites can operate all the way as much as 300 levels C as well as their temperature level coefficient actually increases by 27%/°C. This suggests that ferrites really have stronger Coercivity as the temperature level rises.
Ferrite magnets do shed some magnetic field at higher temperatures– losing 0.20%/ level C as the temperature level increases.
Neodymium magnets usually obtain a bum rap for their absence of deterioration resistance, however they always feature a corrosion-resistant layer unless a developer specifically orders an NdFeB magnet without it.
The default finishing is a nickel-copper-nickel (NiCuNi) finishing which provides excellent overall deterioration resistance as well as a tidy look for many usual applications with no other layers required.
This basic finishing is extremely economical as well as makes up a really little cost element. Other coverings are readily available with a small added cost for applications that require greater corrosion resistance, so NdFeB magnets can be utilized in lots of corrosive environments without any problems.
Now consider the comparison with ferrite magnets which most of the times call for no coatings whatsoever. This element influences numerous design decisions in favor of ferrite magnets.
Ferrite Magnets are much cheaper
Naturally, ferrite magnets are much cheaper than Neodymium magnets, particularly if taken into consideration as a device of cost-per-volume of magnet. If an application does not require the greater magnetic change of a Neodymium magnet, why spend for that? Lots of applications are best for ferrite magnets.
Magnet Design Variables That Require More Analysis
Some applications include an extra challenging choice because of the duty cycle- the percent of time they are functioning. Let’s consider a couple of applications that might go regardless.
An electric motor for occasional usage has different considerations than a motor for continuous use. An occasional use electric motor– like a cleaning device electric motor or a vacuum device electric motor may see a duty cycle of less than 1%, however an a/c unit motor in a warm climate may run 40-70% of the time.
Fridge compressor motors are another example of an electric motor that runs lots of hrs daily.
Performance in a continuous-use motor is a lot more essential than in a motor for occasional use, as well as more powerful magnets make for more higher-efficiency motors.
This is not only an issue of lifecycle expense, but a matter of conserving sources. National Power managers evaluate industrial and also family uses and make referrals based on their analysis. It is just one of the reasons you see the tags on significant appliances indicating their energy efficiency rating.
If an electric motor is mosting likely to be under continual usage, it is more likely to be made from Neodymium magnets than ferrite magnets.
Unique Elements for Your Application
Several flawlessly acceptable sophisticated applications have been designed utilizing either Neodymium or ferrite magnets. What are some examples of effective applications of each?
Room and Size Constraints
Neodymium magnets are typically preferred in the complying with applications that are sensitive to area restrictions: Cellphone, earbuds, earphones, tiny electric motors, automotive seat motors.
Ferrite magnets are typically liked for the adhering to applications that are a lot more sensitive to price or for higher temperatures: big stationary woofer audio speakers, large magnetic separators, refrigerator magnets, holding magnets, affordable speakers.
Picking the Right Magnet for Your Application
If you are designing a part or a system and you are trying to select the ideal magnet, these are the standard layout tradeoffs to consider.
Final System Result
Magnet size can surge with the entire system. Industrial drive PMDC (Permanent Magnet Direct Current) electric motors created for constant usage normally see a 40-70% reduction in dimension plus raised performance contrasted to induction electric motors. Many PMDC electric motors effectively utilize ferrite magnets, however some others need the additional performance and effectiveness that only Neodymium motors can supply.
Neodymium vs ferrite magnets in air conditioner electric motors.
Neodymium magnets are typically part of a more-efficient electric motor with a high duty cycle. Simply put, NdFeB magnets are extra frequently found in electric motors designed for constant use, since the higher performance of the electric motor reduces power usage as well as lifecycle price for the life of the motor.
As an example, in Asia the quick development rate of power usage has led to rigorous demand-side administration, so even residential air conditioner motors with a fairly low responsibility cycle usage Neodymium magnets to attain higher performance than is seen in lots of other industrialized countries. This assists utilities minimize demand at peak times.
As innovation remains to progress, designers are regularly taking a fresh look at just how to utilize both Neodymium and also ferrite magnets. Each type of magnet has its very own unique attributes that make for winning designs.
Designers who intend to enhance their designs will certainly make use of analysis software program or work with a magnet maker that can run the analysis for them. BJMT does internal analysis for many brand-new applications.